Detailed Information

In addition to the information provided below, you can also obtain personalized advice for your particular situation. Details here.

Electric Driving Range Purchase Cost Operating Cost Home Charging The Environment Vehicles Dealers
Image Nissan Leaf

The Electric Driving Experience

  • Electric vehicles are very quiet and without the vibration generated by a gas engine. The result is a feeling of floating along in silence. If you like listening to music, then you will be pleasantly surprised at how much better it sounds.

  • Because the vehicle makes no noise, there is a danger to pedestrians used to hearing gas engine vehicles coming their way. Therefore electric vehicles generally emit a soft artificial sound when travelling under 25 km per hour as well as a beeping sound when moving in reverse.

  • There are no gears or transmission. When you are stopped, the engine is stopped - no engine idling using up fuel and creating noise and vibration. Without gear changing, acceleration is rapid enough to push you back in your seat.

  • Most electric vehicles can cruise comfortably at highway speeds — silently.

  • For those wanting to try out the electric vehicle experience for a few days, the car rental agency EV Rentals, located in Richmond, rents the Chevrolet Bolt, Tesla Model S100D, Model X100D, Model 3 and Model 3 Performance, all on our list of vehicles, and a couple of other plug-in hybrid vehicles. Plug-in Richmond members receive a 5% discount.

Image Tesla Model S

Range Required for Daily Combined City/Highway Driving

  • Most Richmond residents probably drive an average of 30 km per day. However, they would like to be able to drive an electric vehicle 80 km without recharging. The distance from Richmond Centre to Canada Place in downtown Vancouver is 16 km. Two return trips downtown in one day with an extra margin for safety would be 80 km, well within the range of the electric vehicles listed here.

  • Most owners charge their electric vehicles overnight at home. When the return trip exceeds the range of the vehicle, owners want to recharge the vehicle at the destination in less than an hour for the trip home. This requires an electric vehicle with Level 3 charging capability and a Level 3 public charging station at the destination which can usually recharge the battery to 80% capacity in a half hour. While a rapidly increasing number of Level 3 charging stations are being installed, Level 2 charging is more widely available and takes about 4 hours for most electric vehicles with a fully depleted battery.

Range Required for Longer Highway Trips

  • The EPA combined city/highway electric range rating shown in the vehicle listing is reduced for highway only driving at 110 km/h by about 15%. Climbing mountains also reduces range although about 70% is recovered when descending through regenerative braking.

  • The common recommendation is to stop for at least 15 minutes to stretch every two hours of driving whether the vehicle needs refuelling or not. Level 3 recharging to 80% battery capacity takes a half hour or less. Recharging slows down significantly for the remaining 20% so most drivers charge to 80%.

  • Assuming a two hour driving time over flat terrain at 110 km/h, 85% of the EPA combined city/highway range and only using 80% of the battery capacity results in a required EPA combined city/highway range as shown in the vehicle listing of 363 km. A three hour driving time would increase the required range as shown in the listing to 525 km. As explained below, climbing mountains extra battery capacity, but these amounts of range are adequate to reach Seattle, Whistler and Hope without recharging.

  • The chart below shows the average adjusted electric range required for typical destinations from Richmond by increasing the actual distance from Richmond to account for a highway speed of 110 km/h and the total mountain climbing and descent. An additional 5% cushion has also been added to allow for individual vehicle variation from the average and a reserve. Some drivers may want a larger reserve. The adjusted electric range required for a particular destination can be directly compared to the EPA electric range ratings in the vehicle listing. See the note below the chart for an explanation of the range calculations.

  • No reduction in range is included in the chart for use of the vehicle's heating and air conditioning systems and loss of battery efficiency outside the ideal outside operating temperature of 15-25°C. Use of these systems and loss of battery efficiency will reduce range on average by 10% for an outside temperature of 5°C or 30°C.

  • There are level 3 charging facilities in Hope that in 40 minutes or less can recharge the 206 km of range used in getting to Hope. The range requirements from Hope to Merritt, Kamloops and Kelowna are shown for vehicles with batteries large enough to reach these destinations without further recharging.

Destinations from Richmond Required Range to Destination Required Range Return Trip Actual Distance Total Climb Total Descent
White Rock   52 km   52 km   40 km    213 m    213 m
Bellingham 103 km 103 km   78 km    636 m    636 m
Seattle 288 km 288 km 220 km 1,555 m 1,555 m
Sechelt   97 km   97 km   75 km    925 m    925 m
Squamish 103 km 103 km   80 km    905 m    905 m
Whistler 199 km 183 km 136 km 1,941 m 1,275 m
Langley   58 km   58 km   45 km    197 m    191 m
Abbotsford 105 km 104 km   80 km    456 m    418 m
Hope 206 km 205 km 160 km    690 m    649 m

Destinations from Hope Required Range to Destination Required Range Return Trip Actual Distance Total Climb Total Descent
Merritt 180 km 166 km 120 km 1,549 m    944 m
Kamloops 305 km 297 km 215 km 2,952 m 2,628 m
Kelowna 341 km 333 km 240 km 3,423 m 3,080 m

Note: As a rough guide, the EPA equivalent range for highway only driving at 100 kilometers per hour (km/h) is 90% of the electric range shown in the vehicle listing. This drops to 85% for highway driving at 110 km/h. Above that speed, tire size, headwinds, weight of occupants, open windows and aerodynamic design influence range, but it is generally 75-80% at 120 km/h. Vehicles with all-wheel-drive dual motors achieve 80-85% at 120 km/h by turning off one of the motors until it is needed for acceleration. Mountain terrain reduces a vehicle’s range by about 10 km for every 300 m of climb in elevation. Regenerative braking will recover about 7 km of range for every 300 m of descent. Note that if the vehicle has a full battery at the mountain top, it will not be able to absorb the power from regenerative braking on the way down.

Image BMW i3

Purchase Cost

  • Electric vehicles are more expensive to purchase, but less expensive to operate. The higher purchase cost can be recovered in as little as 4 years. See Operating Cost below.

  • Many of the fully electric vehicles with a range over 350 km have a net selling price below $40,000 before taxes and after deducting the federal and BC rebates from the Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Price (MSRP). There are many 2022 models with a range of 480 km or more. The Hyundai Ioniq 5 Long Range will sell for under $50,000 after rebates. The BMW i4 eDrive 40 and the Nissan Ariya will sell for about $55,000 after rebates.

    The complete vehicle list is here. Click on the column headings to order the list. For most electric vehicles, the MSRP is a starting point for negotiation as it is with most gas engine vehicles. However due to a severe shortage of electric vehicles in early 2022, disounts will be rare on popular models.

  • There is a Federal Government rebate of $5,000 after tax for the purchase of a plug-in electric vehicle with an electric range of 50 km or more and $2,500 if the range is less. That rebate has not been deducted from the MSRP shown on the list. The manufacturer's suggested retail price (MSRP) for the base model must be under $55,000 before delivery charges. More expensive trim models must not exceed $65,000. In the case of SUVs, pickups and vans, the base model must be under $60,000 and more expensive trim models must not exceed $70,000. Details here.

  • For individuals, there is a BC Government rebate to a maximum of $4,000 for the purchase of a plug-in electric vehicle with an electric range of 85 km or more and a maximum of $2,000 if the range is less. The manufacturer's suggested retail price (MSRP) cannot exceed $55,000 for most models and cannot exceed $70,000 for SUVs, pickups and vans. The maximum rebate is reduced to one-half if individual total income for tax purposes exceeds $80,000 or household income exceeds $125,000. The maximum rebate is reduced to one-quarter if individual total income exceeds $90,000 or household income exceeds $145,000. There is no rebate if individual total income exceeds $100,000 or household income exceeds $165,000. Before purchasing the vehicle, you must apply online for a rebate authorization that is sent to you by email. This can take up to 3 weeks. You should apply before you decide which vehicle to buy. The authorization is good for one year. Individuals can no longer receive a second rebate if they purchase another EV. Details here.

  • For businesses and non-profits, the BC Government rebate is $3,000 for the purchase of a plug-in electric vehicle with an electric range of 85 km or more and $1,500 if the range is less. The manufacturer's suggested retail price (MSRP) cannot exceed $55,000 for most models and cannot exceed $70,000 for SUVs, pickups and vans. It is not necessary to apply in advance. Details here.

  • The Federal and BC rebates have not been deducted from the MSRP shown on the list. The vehicle dealer will deduct them at time of purchase and claim them from the governments.

  • If you are scrapping a gas engine vehicle and purchasing a designated electric vehicle from an authorized dealer at the same time, there are incentives offered by BC SCRAP-IT. The incentive is $500 if a new or used electric vehicle is purchased. There is also a $400 incentive if a new or used plug-in hybrid vehicle is purchased. (Plug-in hybrid vehicles are not listed here.) The incentives are allocated to each participating dealer and the regulations require that you first get the dealer to assign an incentive to your electric vehicle order and then apply to BC SCRAP-IT once the dealer has the vehicle available for delivery.

  • As with gas engine vehicles, purchase cost negotiation varies greatly depending on the individual purchaser, the dealer and the particular day. It is usually best to first obtain a quote including all desired accessories, extras and tax. From this total, the BC Government rebate and the manufacturer's rebate, if any, are deducted. The dealer can then be asked what additional discount can be offered. The purchaser can offer somewhat less and see what happens. However due to a severe shortage of electric vehicles in early 2022, additional disounts will be rare on popular models.

  • Assuming that a home charging station is being installed, the cost should be added to the purchase cost of the vehicle. See below.

  • Used electric vehicles, particularly the Nissan Leaf 2015 - 2017, are available for under $20,000. There are links to used electric vehicle sources on our Dealers page.


Operating Cost

  • The savings in operating cost comes from both the lower cost of electricity compared to gas and the lower maintenance cost due to the far lesser number of moving parts and fluids. The savings on gas are shown in the above chart. A Nissan Leaf driving 15,000 km per year would save over $1,400 annually on gas over a Honda Civic. According to the Canadian Automobile Association, the savings on maintenance would be at least $500 per year for the first 5 years and significantly more than that in the years following.

    The Nissan Leaf also receives both the BC $3,000 purchase incentive and the $5,000 federal incentive. The total savings for the first 5 years would therefore be $17,500. There would be an additional $500 for scrapping a gas engine vehicle.

  • A typical new electric vehicle warranty guarantees that the battery's capacity will not drop below 70% in the first 8 years or 160,000 km. Aside from defective batteries replaced under warranty, replacement of a battery is extremely rare. Consumer Reports estimates that most batteries will last on average 17 years and 320,000 km (18,800 km per year) which is generally the life of the vehicle. Tesla batteries taken from taxis driven that far still have a capacity exceeding 85%. Any battery refurbishment cost would be offset by the considerable savings on maintenance over the life of the vehicle.

  • There is very little maintenance required since there are neither oil changes nor engine, transmission and exhaust system issues. The electric motor is used to slow the vehicle through regenerative braking and the brakes only bring it to a full stop. With so little use, brake pads are generally expected to last 150,000 km. Regenerative braking also has the advantage of charging the battery while the vehicle is slowing.

Image ChargePoint Charging Station   Image Nissan Portable Charging Cable

Home Charging

Additional information on home charging for Multi-Unit Residential Buildings (MURBs) is available here.

Level 1 Charging

All electric vehicles can be recharged using a standard 120V electrical outlet (level 1 charging), but it will usually take too long for convenient use at home and will only be used elsewhere when no other option is available.

Level 2 Charging

Most owners prefer to cut the recharging time dramatically by installing a 240V outlet (level 2 charging) in their garage or carport. A charging device (called an EVSE) plugs into the 240V outlet at one end and into the vehicle on the other. The most common plug type used by charging devices is a NEMA 14-50 connector. It can be used on circuits up to 50 amps.

  • How fast the vehicle charges generally depends on:

    - how much power is available on the circuit supplying the 240V outlet;

    - The EVSE's ability to output that power to the vehicle;

    - the vehicle's ability to accept that power.

    The EVSE can use 80% of the circuit breaker's amperage rating:

    - 16 amps on a 20 amp circuit;

    - 24 amps on a 30 amp circuit;

    - 32 amps on a 40 amp circuit;

    - 40 amps on a 50 amp circuit;

    - 48 amps on a 60 amp circuit.

  • Most owners install a 32 amp EVSE on a 40 amp circuit that can output between 6.6 kW and 7.7 kW which can be accepted by most vehicles including all of those on the list of electric vehicles.

    If it is only possible to install a 16 amp EVSE on a 20 amp circuit that outputs between 3.3 kW and 3.8 kW, and if the vehicle is driven around 60 km a day and is plugged in every day, then it will be fine for overnight charging even though it will take twice as long to charge (between 4 and 5 hours).

  • A portable EVSE (image above) is simply a long cable with a small electronic box in the middle. It can be left plugged into the outlet and hung on a hook or unplugged and taken on a trip. Most manufacturers supply a 120V portable EVSE with every vehicle.

    Several manufacturers (e.g. Nissan and Audi) supply a portable 240V EVSE with the vehicle that can be used on either a 120V or 240V circuit using an adapter for the plug.

  • The other option is a wall mounted EVSE (image above) which is similar, but has a larger electronic box that is permanently mounted on the wall near the outlet and is left plugged in. There are also wall mounted models that are hard wired directly into the electrical panel rather than plugged in, but it requires an electrician to remove them if you move.

  • The first step is to determine how much power is available in the electrical panel. If there is only 100 amps available in the electrical panel and the home uses an electric stove, electric clothes dryer and/or electric water heater, then it may be necessary to use a 16 amp charging station on a 20 amp circuit breaker or install a device which cuts power to the charging station when necessary. The cost of such devices is in the $1,000 range which should be compared to the cost of increasing the size of the power entrance to the home.

    One device is an electrical load switch, such as the Load Miser, that allows the charging station and an appliance like a stove to share one circuit. Power to the charging station is cut if the stove is turned on. This can work well, especially if the vehicle charging takes place overnight.

    The NeoCharge Dual-Car Smart Splitter costs $850 and allows you to run two level 2 chargers from one 240V outlet. It automatically switches to the second vehicle when the first vehicle has finished charging. If the chargers can be set to consume half the available current then it will charge both vehicles simultaneously. There is another version of the device that will share the outlet with an appliance rather than a second vehicle.

    Another device is an energy management system, such as the Thermolec DCC-10, that monitors the total power consumption of the home and cuts power to the charging station when it gets too high and then restores power to the charging station when there is sufficient power available.

  • The cost of a 240V EVSE can vary widely and the costs specified below have been changing frequently. Note the section below on government rebates. Expensive models with internet connectivity for remote monitoring may stop charging if connectivity is lost. Most electric vehicles come with smartphone software that remotely monitors charging through the vehicle rather than the EVSE. An EVSE that requires hard wiring to the electrical panel rather than a plug to a 240V outlet can be costly to relocate if you move. Although hardwiring may be necessary in an outside location open to the elements, some plug-in models are weatherproof with a NEMA-4 rating and use a 240V outlet in a weatherproof housing.

  • The most versatile option is to use a portable 32 amp 7.7 kW EVSE, especially if one is supplied with the vehicle. If it isn't, our recommendation is the AmazingE FAST model (made by Clipper Creek) available from Sun Country Highway for $899 (after a recent $200 increase). Amazon also lists it, but says it is unavailable. The Cable Wrap, which attaches to the wall to keep the charging cable coiled, is an additional $29. Together with the cost of installing a 240V outlet, the AmazingE FAST is eligible for a government rebate.

    There are many cheaper and/or higher amperage portable models available from other manufacturers on Amazon, but there have been concerns about reliability and safety for some of them and none of them are eligible for a government rebate.

  • There are many wall mounted EVSEs available. If you are fortunate enough to have enough power available in your electrical panel for a 50 amp or 60 amp circuit then a wall mounted model is recommended for safety reasons. It will likely have to be hardwired on a 60 amp circuit.

  • The cheapest reliable wall mounted option is the Canadian made NEMA-4 Grizzl-E plug-in, which can be set from 16 amps to 40 amps and is available for $649 with a 3-year warranty.

  • The 32 amp plug-in JuiceBox Pro 32 is available for $799 with a 3-year warranty.

  • The Canadian made NEMA-4 FLO 30 amp plug-in Home G5 is available for $995 with a 3-year warranty.

  • Costco sells the NEMA-4 Sun Country Highway 32 amp plug-in EV40P (made by Clipper Creek) (Item #1047148) for $979.99. Occasionally Sun Country Highway has a pre-owned one available for $799. Costco also sells the NEMA-4 Sun Country Highway 24 amp plug-in SCH25P (made by Clipper Creek) (Item #1047159) for $749.99. Note that this model uses a NEMA 14-30 plug.

  • The ChargePoint Home Flex plug-in, which can be set from 16 amps to 50 amps, is available from Amazon for $965.

  • For Tesla owners, there is the portable 40 amp Tesla Corded Mobile Connector for $510 and the wall mounted 48 amp Tesla Wall Connector for $630.

  • If a hardwired model is required, there are many more to choose from in addition to the hardwired versions of the above charging stations. BMW sells its own charging station with installation.

  • Recent quotations for installation by a professional electrician in a garage not far from the electrical panel: labour $550, materials $150 - $200, permit $100 for a total cost of $800 - $850 plus GST. Get several quotes. We can recommend an installation electrician if you send an Information Request below.

Level 2 Charging Government Rebates

Most electric vehicles can be programmed to charge in the middle of the night when demand on the electric grid is very low making surplus power available. For this reason, we are encouraging governments to put more funding into home charging rather than public charging which is mostly done during the day.

  • The BC Government rebate for the installation of a home EVSE in single family dwellings is 50% of the cost to a maximum of $350. All of the EVSEs listed above qualify. Single family homes include duplexes and townhouses where the residence has a dedicated adjacent parking space. The EVSE must have been purchased and installed after September 26, 2019.

    Note that the installation of only an electrical outlet in a single family home is not eligible for reimbursement. However, it becomes eligible if you also purchase the AmazingE FAST portable charging cable described above.

    A detailed description of the program is available here. BC Hydro is administering the reimbursement process on behalf of the government. The reimbursement form and procedures are available here. Information on the BC Government charging incentive for Multi-Unit Residential Buildings (MURBs) and workplaces is available here.

Level 3 Charging

The list of electric vehicles shows which vehicles have Level 3 DC fast charging capability at 400V and higher that can recharge most vehicles to at least 80% of capacity in around a half hour. This is beyond the capability of home charging stations and requires a public station with direct access to the electrical grid. Level 3 charging stations are not yet widely available. There are three types of level 3 charging connectors: Tesla Supercharger, CHAdeMO used by the Japanese manufacturers and SAE Combo (also known as CCS) used by U.S. and German manufacturers.


The Environment

  • For those interested in reducing their household's direct greenhouse gas emissions, switching to an electric vehicle has by far the greatest impact. BC Government statistics show that household vehicle use accounts for 44.6% of household GHG emissions while household space heating and cooling is responsible for 16.6% and water heating for 8%. Air travel accounts for 13.1%; bus and rail for 2.4%. Even using a gas engine vehicle 20% of the time for longer trips would still save 35.7% of of household GHG emissions by switching to an electric vehicle for daily travel.

  • According to a 2014 City of Richmond Report, personal automobile use in Richmond contributes 41% of community greenhouse gas emissions. According to the BC Government, new 2015 model gas engine vehicles emit about 3 tonnes of greenhouse gases (GHG) annually. Electric vehicles emit none.

  • In some jurisdictions, electricity is generated using coal or other fossil fuels which generate GHG and lower somewhat the reduction in emissions from switching to electric vehicles. However in BC, our electricity is generated by hydro power which does not generate GHG and gives us the full benefit from using electric vehicles.

  • The disposal of motor oil used in gas engines and transmissions can harm the environment. Motor oil picks up a variety of hazardous contaminants including lead, cadmium, chromium, arsenic, dioxins, benzene and polycyclic aromatics. Electric vehicles do not require motor oil nor use toxic gas additives.

  • There is a detailed 2019 environmental impact report from Tesla on the lifecycle emissions of its vehicles and the manufacture, use and recycling of its batteries. Batteries with reduced capacity can be used in other energy storage applications or they can be ground up and over half of their components that are metals can be recycled into the manufacture of new batteries.